Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes are polygenic, meaning that the disease results from the action of more than one gene. Some rare forms of diabetes are the result of mutation of a single gene (monogenic).

Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (NDM) is a monogenic form of diabetes that presents within the first six months after birth.

NDM is extremely rare, occurring in 1 in 100,000–500,000 live births. Infants who suffer from NDM do not make enough insulin. For about half the children who develop NDM, the condition is lifelong, and is characterized as Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (PNDM.) The remaining cases are transient in nature, generally disappearing by 18 months of age, but reappearing later in life, often during times of stress, like puberty or pregnancy. This is termed Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (TNDM).

NDM is often initially mistaken for Type 1 Diabetes, which also strikes young children. However, Type 1 Diabetes usually does not appear until the child is at least six months of age.

Temporary Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (TNDM)

Children who are born with TNDM are generally much smaller than the average newborn, because TNDM is considered a developmental disorder of insulin production, resulting in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Some of these children will fail to gain weight or achieve normal growth levels (failure to thrive). However, children who are diagnosed very early and receive appropriate therapies can achieve normal growth and development.

Symptoms include thirst, frequent urination and dehydration. Blood glucose levels will be elevated. This hyperglycemia may result in ketoacidosis if not diagnosed quickly. Diagnosis is based on blood glucose readings.

Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (PNDM)

Children born with PNDM develop diabetes during the late prenatal period or early postnatal period, for which reason they don’t usually exhibit IUGR. Some children with PNDM develop a set of neurological problems, including developmental delay and recurrent seizures (epilepsy). This is known as DEND syndrome. A less severe form of this syndrome, known as intermediate DEND syndrome, causes a less serious developmental delay and does not include epilepsy.

A small number of children born with PNDM have an underdeveloped pancreas. This results in lifelong digestive issues and an inability to absorb fat-soluble vitamins.

Treatment

Children born with either TNDM or PNDM will need insulin therapy in order to gain and maintain weight and growth, particularly in children with IUGR. They should also be receiving a high caloric intake.

Children with TNDM should also be monitored closely throughout their lives for re-development of diabetes.

Sources: National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) , National Institutes of Health and Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases

Get A Free 7 Day Diabetes Meal Plan

Get a free 7-Day Diabetes Meal Plan from Constance Brown-Riggs who is a Registered Dietitian-Certified Diabetes Educator and who is also a national spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association.

Just enter in your email below to download your free Diabetes Meal Plan.

By clicking Submit, you agree to send your info to InformationAboutDiabetes.com who, in addition to 3rd party partners, may contact you with updates, products and information and we agree to use it according to our privacy policy and terms and conditions.

More Articles

Eleven Clinical Studies

After eleven clinical studies and 300,000 participants, researcher Vasanti Malik and her team of researchers...

Diabetic women often have a harder time losing weight than non-diabetic women. A study funded by Jenny Craig proved that diabetic women have an...

Many recent studies have proved that magnesium levels are lower in patients with diabetes than in non-diabetics. This magnesium...

Fluid retention, also known as edema, is a problem that affects many diabetics, especially those with type 2 diabetes...

Some of us might be thrilled if we could manage our blood sugar by sitting in a hot tub or sauna, instead of working up a sweat biking, or using...

More Articles

Cooking and baking with the ancient cereal grain sorghum has health benefits for people with diabetes, and those with weight control issues....

When it comes to certain foods, there are always questions as to whether or not a diabetic can have them without...

With its slightly nutty flavor, chewy texture, and nutritional punch farro is an ancient whole grain worth a place in our pantry.

Farro...

Matcha tea is a rich, creamy, full-bodied beverage with amazing nutritional properties that address several diabetes health concerns.

The...

According to information available through the National Institutes of Health, there’s an estimated 462 million people in the world who are...

Salads are good example of foods that type 2 diabetics can enjoy with relatively low guilt. With the right greens and other elements added, salad...

Remaining gainfully employed is important to many people. Those who live with any form of diabetes may find that some lines of work are more...

Learning that you have diabetes does mean making some lifestyle changes. One of the areas that needs attention is your diet. Most people find that...

One of the more challenging aspects of life as a type 2 diabetic is managing your diet. There’s often the temptation to avoid certain foods...

The green, heavily ridged acorn squash is plentiful in the marketplace this time of year. Though, Acorn squash has a high glycemic index rank of...

A 1300-Calorie diet is a way of eating that limits your daily calorie intake to only 1300 calories a day. This is considered a low calorie diet,...

Maca Root is an editable root vegetable, and is known as Peruvian Ginsing. It is a relative of the radish and turnip family, and is remarkable...

One way to ensure our body gets a variety of nutrients is eating nutrient-dense foods, and one of the most nutrient-dense foods on our planet is...

People who use insulin pumps purposefully break their skin, the body’s main defense against bacteria, to receive continuous doses of life-saving...

Anyone can have diabetes, even infants. When an infant is born, part of the routine check-up by the neonatologist or the pediatrician is a test...